237131_A2_WEEK 11_21/10/2016

Ātea is the space you come into before entering a marae, where the tangata whenua and the manahuri come together. The marae atea is also the domain of Tūmatauenga, the god of war, therefore a it is place suited to open debate and discussing contentious issues.

Art Place final series

My third block course was art place, I chose the Elice St Quarry as my location and created a three final paintings based on a video I made while climbing a tree at the quarry. The paintings represent my interpretation of Atea in the quarry, the coming together of the sky and trees. I created 3 a1 acrylic paintings to create an immersive feel of movement, as if you were experiencing the coming together of the trees and sky.


My paintings are an interpretation of the trees (of the land) and the sky coming together and could be interpreted as an atea space between the masculine and feminine. Many cultures view the land as female and the sky as male ie. Gaia and Zeus in Greek mythology or Ranginui and Papatuanuku in Maori. Pakeha constructions of Maori cosmology have historically marginalized female figures (Mikaera) in accordance to colonial views of gender roles giving males greater importance. It is important to think about how paintings can be viewed from different worldviews to use different interpretations of the painting to create a resonating painting with different walks of people.


Works Cited

Mikaera, Ani. “Maori Women – Caught in the contradictions of a colonised reality.” 1994. University of Waikato


237131_A2_WEEK 10_10/10/2016

I am a second generation New Zealander. Both my parents were born in England and after traveling all around the world on their OE’s they fell in love with New Zealand and decided to settle here. I have lived my whole life in New Zealand and my parents taught me to appreciate the amazing environment we have here, that they didn’t have growing up. Growing up we traveled all around New Zealand and we spent a lot of time tramping the great NZ walks or camping in remote campsites.  I love that in a few hours drive from my home city of Christchurch you can be on the vast expanse of the Canterbury plains, on the peaks of the Southern Alps, the beach forest in Fiordland or the dry barrens of the McKenzie country.

As a British-New Zealander, living in Christchurch, the dominant culture I have been surrounded by is Pakeha culture. Pakeha culture is a primitive one, it has only been around for a couple of hundred years and hasn’t had the time to develop in isolation that many other cultures have experienced. Historically, Pakeha culture has attempted to define itself in relation to Maori, bastardizing symbols such as the koru for representation of New Zealand culture. However this type of cultural appropriation is insensitive and doesn’t consider Maori tikanga. I have a solution to the Pakeha identity crisis. I think Pakeha culture should be taking a page out of Maori tikanga and actively acting with kaitiakitanga of the New Zealand. If Pakeha culture needs to define itself in relation to others, it should start with actively loving and protecting the beautiful New Zealand land that we all rely on.

In fact part of upholding our founding document, the Treaty of Waitangi is actively protecting Maori taonga for all people which includes the treasures of New Zealand’s land. Unfortunately, New Zealand has had a rocky history upholding this part of the treaty in cases like the 2004 Foreshore and Seabed Act have ignored Maori rights to access the land and denied rights of Maori to act with kaitiakitanga over land. That act was repealed and replaced in 2011 opting for public protection and access of the foreshore and seabed. This beautiful land (and see) is what makes me feel connected to New Zealand and I feel is what defines me and a citizen of New Zealand and what all who live here have a duty to protect together.


Walters, Gordon. “Arahura.” 1982. Vison Mixer. Suter Art Gallery. Nelson 2014. Print.


Works Cited:

White, Anna-Marie, and Kate Brettkelly-Chalmers. KaihonoĀhua = Vision Mixer: Revisioning Contemporary New Zealand Art. Nelson: Suter Art Gallery TeAratoi O Whakatū, 2014. Print.

Walters, Gordon. “Arahura.” 1982.Screenprint on paper. The Suter Art Gallery: Te Aratoi o Whakatu.

237131_A2_WEEK 9_30/09/2016

Powhiri Stages

Paterson, Jacob. “Powhiri.” 2016. Illustration.

Maori men are often stereotyped in NZ society as the ‘primitive natural athlete’. This originates from the early colonial perception that Maori were intellectually inferior to Europeans and considered in many cases, ‘primitive savages’ (Wall 3).

The stereotype of Maori as natural athletes isn’t perceived by many Pakeha to be particularly harmful, as it portrays Maori men as strong and fierce, like depictions of Maori warrior imagery, for the NZ Warriors Rugby team. Contemporary Maori artist, Michael Parakowhai challenges this assertion in his sculpture ‘kapa haka’. Criticizing these colonial imposed stereotypes, that act as a way of referring to Maori as the ‘Other’ with collective experiences and traits of physical prowess, and not necessarily intellectual prowess. It depicts 5 Maori men in shirt and tie and speaks to how stereotypes affect Maori men in the modern workplace.


Parekowhai, Michael. Kapa Haka, 2003, automotive paint on fiberglass, Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, Auckland.

Works Cited:

Parekowhai, Michael. Kapa Haka, 2003, automotive paint on fiberglass, Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, Auckland.

Wall, Melanie. “Stereotypical Constructions of the Maori ‘Race’” New Zealand Geographer 53.2 (1997): 40-45.

237131_A2_WEEK 8_22/09/2016

Westra, Ann. “from Washday at the pa.” 1964. Photography. Te Papa Tongarewa.

European photographer Ann Westra, took “from Washday at the pa” with the intention of observing day to day life as she traveled through  rural areas of New Zealand (Art New Zealand). The photographs were later used in Te Ao Hou,a book used in primary school across New Zealand in the 60’s and 70’s. These photographs were the only representation of rural Maori in Te Ao Hou and were criticised that they could create an false perception among Pakeha children about what life was like for Maori before many came to the cities. This was especially destructive as when the book was being circulated Maori migration to the cities was at its peak, with approximately 64% of the Maori population in urban areas.


Works Cited:

Art New Zealand. “The Eye of an Outsider: A Conversation with Ans Westra.” Art New Zealand. Art New Zealand, 2001. Web. 24 Sept. 2016.

237131_A2_WEEK 7_15/09/2016

1. European/American’s often represent Polynesians as half naked, ‘native’ people in order to market the islands as a relaxing tourist destination, where one can escape the stresses of modern life. The depiction of the islands as an idealistic place with people represented in a different time sweeps aside many of the modern issues of poverty and climate change that threaten the survival of Pacific Nations (Taouma 37).

2. The Polynesian Panthers group, was formed as a result of the dawn raids and racial scapegoating of NZ Polynesians in the 1970’s. The name and design of the logo is based off the Black Panthers group that was founded in America in 1966 during the US civil rights movement. Because of this the association, Polynesian panthers were immediately associated with fighting racial prejudice. However the logos were commonly used as ‘gang style’ patches couple with the perception of the black panthers as a radical group lead to many pakeha viewing the Polynesia Panthers as a gang. (Fepulea’i).

‘Polynesian Panther logo, 1970’s’ Anae, Melani. All power to the people. 2012. Tangata o le Moana. Wellington. New Zealand. Te Papa. Press. 222.

3. New Zealand’s economy experienced a post war boom in the 50’s and 60’s and Polynesian immigrants willing to work blue collar job were welcomed to NZ. NZ fell into a depression in the 70’s due to the oil crisis, causing a rise in unemployment and the national government was quick to blame Polynesian overstayers for taking NZ jobs. The government targeted at Polynesian communities, raiding potential over stayers houses in the middle of the night and asking for proof of residency. While the government and the Police Minister Allan McCready insisted that “there were no random checks” it was discovered that there were 201 random checks and in 1977 the Immigration policy was changed and ended the dawn raids.


Works Cited:

Anae, Melani. ‘Polynesian Panther logo, 1970’s’ All power to the people. 2012. Tangata o le Moana. Wellington. New Zealand. Te Papa. Press. 222.

Fepulea’i, D. “The Dawn Raids.” 2005. Documentary.

Taouma, Lisa. ‘Gauguin is dead … there is no paradise.’ 2004. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 25:1, 35-46.

237131_A1_WEEK 6 TASK 2_28/08/2016


Emily Karaka
Karaka, Emily. Local Government Tea Party. 1997, Acrylic on hessian on board, Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, Auckland.


Emily Karaka’s work above deals with her iwi, Ngai Tai’s relationship with the Treaty of Waitangi in contemporary society. The work addresses the treaty from a Maori worldview, the confrontational and vibrant acrylic colours challenge perceptions of the treaty as a celebratory, founding document. And rather something that lead to the theft of Ngai Tai’s kaitiakitanga of their land. Karaka describes her painting process as her patu (Anderson 449), a term for a club which links back to her tupuna, both of them using their form of weapons, in her case a symbolic weapon used to challenge others opinions.

Work Cited:

Anderson, Atholl, Judith Binney and Aroha Harris. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams Books, 2012. Print.

237131_A1_WEEK 6 TASK 1_28/08/2016

Western framing of Maori culture has resulted in Maori art being commonly viewed from a western worldview. However it is evident that the two cultures are completely different and view material culture in a completely different sense. James Cook’s early accounts of Maori refer to them as a ‘tribal culture’ (Anderson 138) and captures much of the material aspect of material culture, but not so much the culture aspect. Even the framing of Maori art as ‘Maori art’ is a western concept as Maori learned the differentiation between their own aesthetic concepts and European art (Mane-Wheoki 7).

Outsiders of a culture often assume they can view the culture from an unbiased and objective perspective as they are not part of the culture themselves. However the’outsiders’ interpretations of the culture are always shaped in some way, by their own ideologies and cultural background. Outsiders can even shape and frame other cultures view of their own art from an internal standpoint.


Works Cited:

Anderson, Atholl, Judith Binney and Aroha Harris. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams Books, 2012. Print.

Mane-Wheoki, Jonathan. “Art’s Histories in Aotearoa New Zealand.” Journal of Art Historiography, 4, 2011.